Christine Trimingham Jack - School of Education & Community Studies, University of Canberra
A Dose of Castor Oil
Children’s literature forms a part of the curriculum of schools either informally or formally. Literature is a powerfully forming influence in constructing subjectivity of the imagined self. My aim in this paper is to employ reflexivity to explore the relationship between my pathway into teaching and constructions of female teachers in the writing of Ethel Turner and Mary Grant Bruce. Both authors used Australia as their setting, were more popular with girls and there is enough evidence to indicate that a significant number of the pre- 1950 Australian population, including myself read their novels. The outcome of the paper is, in contrast to a linear analysis of a bank of books, a network of meaning in which integration of experience is used, in the words of Jean Bethke Elshtain, to define the research questions, as a source of data, to test findings and to reconnect the researcher with the ‘wellsprings’ of my own thought and action. The findings indicate that while the books of these writers contain the dominant discourses employed in constructing female teachers, there is also a surplus of meaning that allows at least a two way reading.
Jenny Collins - Massey University, New Zealand
From ‘Apprentice’ to ‘Professional’: The Training of New Zealand Catholic Teachers 1945-65
Although the spiritual formation of Catholic teachers worked to maintain distinctive religious values in Catholic schools, this paper details how, in the years from 1945 to 1965, New Zealand Catholic educators increasingly adopted state models of teacher training and professional development as a way of protecting the educational standards in Catholic schools. Partly as a consequence of pressures resulting from the post-war expansion into secondary education and partly out of a desire to align the qualifications of teachers with state requirements, Catholic teacher training moved incrementally from an ‘apprenticeship’ model based on religious formation and teacher training within religious orders to a ‘professional’ system incorporating state ‘expertise’ within a ‘national’ system of Catholic teacher training. From the late 1950s teaching orders utilised state models of professional development and contributed the expertise of their own teachers in what increasingly became an integrated approach to the professional development of New Zealand educators.
Lyndon Megarrity - University of Sydney
Indigenous Education in Colonial Papua New Guinea: Australian Government Policy (1945-1975)
This paper traces the history of Commonwealth policy towards indigenous PNG education from 1945 to 1975. In the 1950s, PNG autonomy was regarded by Australian officials as a long-term goal that would take decades to achieve. Commonwealth education policy was consequently geared towards establishing universal educational standards among PNGans through expanding primary education. While indigenous secondary and tertiary education opportunities were expanded in the 1960s and early 1970s, the progress came too late to prevent problems which have plagued PNG after independence. Commonwealth policy towards PNG education in the colonial period was limited conceptually by the relatively low priority accorded to PNG affairs by the Australian government, as well as the Commonwealth’s overwhelming emphasis on narrow vocational outcomes for indigenous people. Educational outcomes vital to successful independence—such as civic awareness and a solid pool of professional workers—were neglected, much to the future cost of PNG as a nation.
Kathleen M. Fennessy - Faculty of Education, Monash University
Making Difficult Things Plain’: Learning at the Industrial and Technological Museum, Melbourne, 1870–80
In 1870, after a decade of debate over the economic importance of technical and scientific learning, the Industrial and Technological Museum was established in the city of Melbourne ‘as a means of public instruction’ for the people of Victoria. Working people, it was argued, needed the practical and scientific learning associated with the European technological movement or Victoria would not be industrially competitive. This paper examines the Museum’s educational role during the 1870s. It analyses the Museum’s ‘triple’ approach to technical education, considering how its public lectures and exhibits assisted visitors to learn informally about science applied to everyday life, and how formal classes facilitated scientific learning relevant to colonial occupations. Arguing that the Museum’s tripartite approach to technical education was innovative and advanced, the paper throws new light on the history of the Museum, as well as on the history of technical learning in Victoria.
Excerpt from Bernadette Baker - University of Madison Wisconsin, US
From the Genius of the Man to the Man of Genius, Part Two: Inheriting (ideas About) Genius